Most Common A-Level Biology Questions By Topic


A-Level Biology is a rigorous subject that tests students’ knowledge and skills in various areas, ranging from cell biology to ecology. To excel in A-Level Biology, students need to focus on each topic and prepare for commonly asked questions. This article aims to provide a comprehensive list of the most common A-Level Biology questions sorted by topic, helping students study smarter and succeed in their exams.

  1. Cell Biology

a) Explain the structure and functions of the major cell organelles.

b) Describe cell division processes: mitosis and meiosis.

c) Explain the importance of cell specialization and differentiation.

d) Describe the principles of active transport, diffusion, and osmosis in cells.

e) Explain the role of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis.

  1. Biochemistry

a) Describe the structure and properties of water, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.

b) Explain enzyme structure, function, and regulation.

c) Discuss the major metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.

d) Describe the role of ATP as an energy currency in cells.

  1. Anatomy & Physiology

a) Explain the structure and function of major mammalian organs such as the lungs, heart, liver, and kidneys.

b) Describe the function of blood and its components.

c) Discuss the role of homeostasis in maintaining a stable internal environment.

d) Explain the function of the nervous system and how neurotransmitters work.

e) Describe the structure and function of the human reproductive system.

  1. Genetics

a) Explain the principles of inheritance, including Mendelian genetics and gene linkage.

b) Describe the structure and function of DNA, including replication, transcription, and translation.

c) Explain genetic mutations and how they can lead to genetic diseases.

d) Describe the process of gene expression regulation, including epigenetics and post-transcriptional regulation.

e) Discuss the principles and applications of genetic engineering, including cloning and gene therapy.

  1. Evolution & Biodiversity

a) Describe the main principles of evolution, including natural selection, adaptation, and speciation.

b) Discuss the evidences for evolution, such as fossils, embryology, and molecular biology.

c) Explain the biological classification system and the concept of species.

d) Compare and contrast different types of organisms, including animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and viruses.

e) Analyze the factors that contribute to the current biodiversity crisis, including habitat loss, climate change, pollution, and invasive species.

  1. Ecology

a) Define the concept of ecosystems and discuss their components, including populations, communities, and abiotic factors.

b) Describe how energy is transferred through ecosystems, including the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers.

c) Discuss the major biogeochemical cycles, including carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles.

d) Explain the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services for human well-being.

e) Describe human-induced impacts on ecosystems and potential solutions, such as reforestation, conservation, and sustainable development.

  1. Plant Biology

a) Explain the structure and function of plant cells and tissues, including cell walls, chloroplasts, and xylem and phloem.

b) Describe the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in plants.

c) Explain the role of plant hormones and tropisms in growth and development.

d) Describe the adaptations of plants to different environments, such as deserts, wetlands, and forests.

e) Explain the importance of pollination and seed dispersal in plant reproduction.


Preparing for A-Level Biology exams involves mastering various topics and understanding key concepts. To succeed, students should practice answering different question types and apply their knowledge in real-world situations. By focusing on the most common questions by topic, as provided in this article, students can study efficiently and maximize their potential to achieve high grades in A-Level Biology.



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