DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is the molecule that carries the genetic instructionsused in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms and manyviruses. DNA is made up of two long chains of nucleotides, which are the building blocks ofDNA. The nucleotides are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenousbase. The nitrogenous base is the part of the nucleotide that determines the genetic informationencoded in the DNA. There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G),cytosine (C), and thymine (T). These bases pair up in a specific way (A with T and C with G) toform the familiar double helix structure of DNA. The sequence of the four nitrogenous bases inthe DNA molecule determines the genetic code and is responsible for the diversity of life onEarth.
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Things to remember
- DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
- It is a molecule that contains genetic instructions for the development and function of all livingorganisms
- DNA is located in the nuclei of cells and is composed of nucleotides
- There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine
- The sequence of these bases determines the genetic code
- DNA replication occurs when a cell divides, allowing each new cell to have a copy of thegenetic information
- Mutations can occur in the DNA sequence and can result in genetic disorders or variations
- DNA profiling is a technique used for identifying individuals based on their unique DNA sequence
- Advances in DNA technology have revolutionized fields such as forensic science, genetics,and medicine.